Labor Management in Agriculture: Cultivating Personnel Productivity (DANR special publication)

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The EEMP then captures and leverages visual imagery and explanations translated into many languages to show governments and international agencies, policy makers and different interest groups not only how it is possible to restore the land-based ecosystems of this planet, but to point out countless benefits that logically follow for human wellbeing.

Foundation for Ecological Security Close The Foundation for Ecological Security was set up in to reinforce the massive and critical task of ecological restoration in India. The Foundation strives for a future that is based on a holistic understanding of the principles that govern the interrelationships of various life forms and natural systems. The essence of these efforts lies in intertwining principles of nature conservation and local self-governance in order to accelerate ecological restoration, as well as to improve the living conditions of the poor.

Global Footprint Network Close In , Global Footprint Network GFN was established to enable a sustainable future where all people have the opportunity to live satisfying lives within the means of one planet. Their work aims to accelerate the use of the Ecological Footprint — a resource accounting tool that measures how much nature we have, how much we use, and who uses what. The efforts of GFN are fueled by a future vision in which human demand on nature is monitored as closely as the stock market. They provide the scientific data necessary to drive large-scale, social change.

GFN gives insight into the ecological footprint of companies and investors. This insight can help companies and investors get involved in or invest in restoring ecosystems. ISRIC operates on three priority areas: soil data and soil mapping, application of soil data in global development issues and training and education. Its mission is to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.

IUCN is involved in data-analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, lobbying and education. The organization has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity.

It is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide. Leaders for Nature Close Leaders for Nature is the business engagement network of twenty multinationals and major Dutch enterprises working together on greening the economy, founded by the Dutch office of the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN.

By offering knowledge and training, hands-on project support and inspiration, Leaders for Nature stimulates and facilitates companies to take the lead in this transition and incorporate natural capital in their core business. Since its foundation in , the Leaders for Nature network has connected more than 1, professionals from various management levels with other member companies, NGOs, governments and academic institutions, resulting in corporate action plans and joint programs. In , Leaders for Nature launched its second network in India.

The Leaders for Nature network provides Commonland access to companies that are interested in working on ecosystem restoration. Living Lands Close Living Lands is a South African not-for-profit organization for conserving and restoring living landscapes. A living landscape consists of a variety of healthy ecosystems and land uses, and is home to ecological, agricultural, and social systems that are managed so as to function sustainably.

Topics in sustainable agriculture

This ensures that natural and cultural resources are available for future generations and that the system is resilient for adaptation to climate change. Their mission is to bring synergies and added value to the landscape through promoting living landscapes, mobilizing civil society for sustainability, enabling and facilitating social learning processes and fostering mutually beneficial partnerships and participatory networks.

Its core task is to conduct basic and strategic ecological research that meets the highest international standards.

The scientists at the Netherlands Institute of Ecology perform basic and strategic ecological research on individual organisms, populations, ecological communities and ecosystems. Together they study animal, plant and microbial ecology in terrestrial and freshwater environments. The multidisciplinary collaboration within this diverse group of ecologists has created unique opportunities to develop the broad, comprehensive approaches needed to solve complex ecological problems.

Presencing Institute Close The Presencing Institute of MIT Harvard is an awareness-based action-research community that creates social technologies, builds capacities, and generates holding spaces for profound societal renewal. They develop and disseminate tools that help change makers to create deep innovation and change. The Presencing Institute has created a framework and methodology that allows diverse groups of stakeholders to co-sense, reinvent, and co-create the larger eco-systems in which they operate. This has been published in two books: Presence and Theory U.

Their third book, Leading from the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-system Economies , has set the stage for the next wave of action research, systems change, and collaborative renewal. Theory U is used by Commonland to align all stakeholders in a deeper understanding of the returns of inspiration and social capital. The Presencing Institute gives guidance to the Commonland team on working with Theory U at a landscape level.

To fulfill its mission to create effective and conscious public opinion on environmental problems — specifically soil erosion, deforestation, desertification, climate change and biodiversity loss — TEMA operates at local, national and international level. It organizes awareness-raising events and campaigns for community mobilization and empowerment; it implements educational activities and model projects of various scales; it intervenes in government policies for proper environmental protection and it conducts legal activities, both by legislation drafting and through its lawsuits.

Tompkins Conservation Close For two decades, Tompkins Conservation has been creating national parks, recovering imperiled wildlife, implementing ecological agriculture, promoting healthy local communities, and supporting leading-edge activism. They develop diverse programs around each unique place in which they work, but all efforts lead back to a common vision: big, secure, wild landscapes where all the native plants and animals thrive. Nearby, human communities flourish, their economic vitality linked to the vibrant good health of the natural world surrounding them. The experiences of Tompkins Conservation in Latin America are a valuable tool to be shared within the Commonland team.

Commonland works together with Tompkins Conservation at team level. Utrecht University Close Established in , Utrecht University has evolved into a leading modern research university with a growing international reputation. The Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University investigates and develops processes and opportunities for innovative change towards sustainability.

The institute thus seeks to contribute to the development of knowledge and techniques as well as methods and instruments in the field of sustainable development, taking note of related social debates and policy processes. It is the ambition of the institute to make a difference — in science and education, and in society at large — in the exploration of a sustainable world.

Wetlands International Close Wetlands International is the only global not-for-profit organization dedicated to the conservation and restoration of wetlands. Their vision is a world where wetlands are treasured and nurtured for their beauty, the life they support and the resources they provide. Wetlands International is dedicated to maintaining and restoring wetlands for their environmental values as well as for the services they provide to people. They work through a network of offices, partners and experts. Wetlands International works at field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and uses this practical experience to advocate better policies.

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Through their expertise and international network, Wetlands International can work together with Commonland on local restoration projects. Since its foundation in , the World Land Trust has funded partner organizations around the world to create reserves, and give permanent protection to habitats and wildlife. Deltares Close Deltares is an independent institute for applied research in the field of water, subsurface and infrastructure. Throughout the world, they work on smart solutions, innovations and applications for people, environment and society.

Their main focus is on deltas, coastal regions and river basins. As an applied research institute, the success of Deltares can be measured in the extent to which their expert knowledge can be used in and for society. For Deltares, the quality of their expertise and advice is foremost. Knowledge is their core business. Since its establishment, the WASWAC has devoted itself to research and communication to solve scientific and technical problems related to soil and water conservation.

WASWAC has conducted many technical cooperative research projects; organized a series of international training courses, symposia and workshops; and set up and sponsored several awards in the field of soil and conservation. WASWAC welcomes future cooperation and collaboration with sister organizations — including governmental bodies, research institutes, universities and consultants in soil and conservation-related fields all over the world — in promoting the application of wise soil and water management practices.

The aim of which is to improve and safeguard the quality of land and water resources so they continue to meet the needs of agriculture, society and nature. APG firmly believes that participants benefit from a collective pension system. They support this pension system with their knowledge and expertise. APG is providing advice to Commonland on its long-term strategy. Jones Day Close Jones Day is a global law firm with 43 offices in major centers of business and finance throughout the world. Covering 18 countries on five continents, its unique governance system fosters an unparalleled level of integration and contributes to its ranking as one of the best in the world in client service.

Jones Day is legal advisor to Commonland and provides ongoing assistance on local and cross border legal matters. Their clients range from the largest corporations to emerging growth companies, government and regulatory bodies, and major educational and cultural institutions. Their core services include executive search, board consulting, and leadership strategy services.

Egon Zehnder was founded in with two distinctive aims: to place the interests of their clients first, and to lead their profession in creating value for their clients. Enviu Close Enviu kick-starts impact-driven companies; companies aimed at creating environmental and social impact. The products and services of their start-ups aim to improve the quality of life of as many people as possible in a sustainable way.

Enviu has two core activities: co-creation and business development. Through co-creation they generate business concepts together with their community of entrepreneurs and innovators. They then act as a risk-taking partner with the entrepreneurs that have the most promising concepts and make them investor ready.

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Eosta Close Eosta is an international distributor of fresh organic fruits, vegetables and juices, with a focus on overseas fruits and greenhouse crops. They maintain a close working relationship with more than a thousand growers on six continents. Their core values of responsibility, togetherness and authenticity are at the heart of their innovative approach. FMO Close FMO is the Dutch development bank that finances entrepreneurs from developing countries because they believe a thriving, sustainable private sector fuels economic and social progress.

Their mission is to empower entrepreneurs to build a better world.

They finance companies, projects and financial institutions from developing and emerging markets. FMO specializes in sectors where their contribution can have the highest long-term impact. It is ISO certified and offers high quality advice on forest management, certification and technical assistance to plantation establishment and management. Sustainable commercial forest exploitation is one of the viable options to maintain important forest functions, while adding value to the forest and preserving it. Form International has extensive experience in tropical forest management, mainly in West and Central Africa, and is also active in Europe on Chain-of-Custody certification and PEFC conformity assessments.

Groasis Close Groasis is a socially active and environmental friendly enterprise based in the Netherlands. They are successfully planting trees in over 30 countries with extremely dry and hot climates. The Groasis Technology is extremely efficient with water and helps the planter save money with eco-restoration, while — if the plantation is for agroforestry — also allowing the planter to make more money. They develop tools that can be used in semi-arid areas to plant trees without irrigation. They do this through their work with private, public and social sector organizations, through their investments in research on topics such as education and through their extensive pro bono and volunteer work.

They draw on their functional and industry expertise to support organizations that are seeking to tackle the toughest societal challenges. Each year, they help leading foundations, nonprofits, and multilateral institutions to address issues such as disease, poverty, climate change and natural disasters. Land Life Company Close The Land Life Company fills a void by providing professional, low-cost and biodegradable products to improve the ecological and esthetic value of land.

The objective of the Land Life Company is to make a material contribution in the form of large restoration projects 1, hectares and more and landscaping projects in dry climates. Achieving this objective will enhance the quality of ecosystems through improved water management, enriched biodiversity, reduced soil erosion and increased dust and CO2 absorption. Perhaps most importantly, it will help to build local economies and communities and form a source of pride and inspiration for people. Santam Close Santam is widely regarded as the leading and most trusted brand in the South African short-term insurance industry.

At Santam, they believe in a simple principle - that insurance is something that should add value and peace of mind, not questions, uncertainty, parameters or excuses. Together with the association AlVelAl, Commonland developed a large-scale 4 returns landscape restoration plan for the region, which will be implemented in the coming years. The goal of the association is to mobilize the community in sharing the vision of creating a region that is self-sufficient and full of life.

Their aim is to take care of the soil and water in the area and work towards ecological agriculture, which improves the soil fertility. AlVelAl organizes activities which improve the capacity of professionals in agriculture and ecotourism and it helps to implement regenerative practices and to restore the land. La Almendrehesa Close Our young company, La Almendrehesa , has been created as an initiative within a project of landscape restoration in the southeast of Andalusia, one of the areas at highest risk for desertification in the world.

Launched by the Commonland Foundation in , this project is a start-up spurred by highly motivated persons and institutions such as farmers, researchers, engineers, public bodies, etc. Our company also stems from this initiative. Our objective is to showcase this effort to improve our natural environment and to offer regional products obtained using regenerative methods for soil and landscape that are ecologically, economically and socially sustainable, with an outlook to the development and well-being of the area.

All of this is aimed at an ideally productive ecosystem which we call La Almendrehesa, where non-irrigated almond trees as main crop together with other crops such as olive trees, vines, cereals and aromatic plants combine with the implementation of hedges, vegetation cover, bee-keeping and sustainable grazing. Grounded Close Grounded works with farmers to develop regenerative businesses in sub-Saharan Africa.

These businesses establish a healthier and more profitable balance between nature and agriculture, while shortening the value chain between producers and consumers. In doing so, they support and foster the mass restoration of nature and degraded farmland across sub-Saharan Africa. Their main focus is on developing and cultivating high-value crops which can be processed on the landscape, thus shortening the value-chain while maximizing the value for the farmer.

Living Lands Close Living Lands is a not-for-profit organization created for the purpose of restoring living landscapes. Together with various stakeholders, they set up local learning networks to create a mutual understanding in working together towards more sustainable land use. They bring synergies and added value to the landscape through promoting living landscapes and mobilizing civil society for sustainability. Furthermore, they enable and facilitate social learning processes and foster mutually beneficial partnerships and participatory networks.

Wide Open Agriculture Close The aim of Wide Open Agriculture is to empower Wheatbelt farmers to transition towards regenerative farming practices, which can deliver both the selection and variety, that local and export markets are demanding. They believe this transition will produce meaningful food that inspires communities and regenerates ecosystems.

Together with Commonland, Wide Open Agriculture aims to rehabilitate the degraded landscape and rejuvenate communities by using the 4 returns approach. Their effort also focusses on delivering healthy, nutritious, fresh and affordable food. Currently, they produce food in a way that delivers 4 returns, but remains affordable to the buyer.

They adopt technologies that are non-harmful to the environment and the community that surrounds them. Their food systems will be water-secure and resilient to climatic variability. This will ensure consistent, regular supply of fresh, local foods from the Wheatbelt. Froidefontaine Close Froidefontaine Farm, located in Havelange Belgium, brings together producers of food, and other entrepreneurs to build a unique place for food, crafts, education and hospitality.

By combining these diverse activities, Froidefontaine Farm offers a range of high-quality products and catering, as well as an enriching experience for many visitors. Watch video. Baviaanskloof Development Company Close The Baviaanskloof Devco promotes the development of Four Returns farming practices in the Baviaanskloof, to restore degraded land and increase income for farmers. It's primary focus is the processing and marketing of essential oils.

The company also supports farmers to establish these crops on their farms, and transition towards regenerative farming practices. The income from the oils will over time replace the income from goat farming. Goat farming in the Baviaanskloof has led to massive degradation, due to unsustainable management practices. The farmers in the Baviaanskloof Devco want to support a transition towards more sustainable land use, to benefit the future generations, and create a landscape to be proud of.

Through the activities of the Baviaanskloof Devco, land becomes available for active nature restoration, so millions of trees can be planted to revitalize nature in this World Heritage Site, and Biodiversity Hotspot. The company is the result of a strong collaboration between the Baviaanskloof community, Commonland, Living Lands, and Grounded. Library In this library you will find a selection of publications and videos that give an introduction to landscape restoration. Commonland Publication 4 returns from landscape restoration Commonland Publication.

Interview with nature restorer Willem Ferwerda Sustainable interview in Dutch newspaper October Interview with nature restorer Willem Ferwerda. Dead planet, living planet Biodiversity and ecosystem restoration for sustainable development Dead planet, living planet. Planetary boundaries Exploring the safe operating space for humanity Planetary boundaries. A safe and just space for humanity Can we live within the doughnut? A safe and just space for humanity. Ecosystem restoration is now a global priority Restoration ecology: time to roll up our sleeves Ecosystem restoration is now a global priority.

Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration. Changes in global value of ecosystems Changes in the global value of ecosystem services Changes in global value of ecosystems. Restoring natural capital Science, business, and practice Restoring natural capital. The value of land Prosperous lands and positive rewards through sustainable land management The value of land. The little sustainable landscapes book Achieving sustainable development through integrated landscape managment The little sustainable landscapes book.

Sustainable financing for forest and landscape restoration Sustainable financing for forest and landscape restoration. The role of trust in restoration success Public engagement and temporal and spatial scale in a complex social-ecological system The role of trust in restoration success. Economics of land degradation and improvement A global assessment for sustainable development Economics of land degradation and improvement.

Land degradation neutrality: a business perspective Land degradation neutrality: a business perspective. Annual Report Annual Report Liu documents large-scale ecosystem restoration projects. Hope in a changing climate - Trailer Environmental film maker John D. Hope in a changing climate - Trailer. Lessons of the Loess Plateau. The value of soil The ELD initiative produced a short information film on the value of soil and the economic impact of land degradation. The value of soil. Land for life award - Foundation for ecological security When land is shared by everyone, who is responsible for its well-being?

Land for life award - Foundation for ecological security. John D. Unbroken Ground by Patagonia Unbroken Grounds explains the critical role food will play in the next frontier of our efforts to solve the environmental crisis. Familiarity with cannabis is preferred, but plenty of employers are happy to hire someone with experience managing a large-scale greenhouse operation. Equal parts pharmacist, bartender, confidant and hall monitor, the budtender is where the marijuana industry meets the consumer.

From behind the dispensary counter, budtenders check IDs and prescription cards, track all cannabis sales and — most important — help customers understand the products and how to use them. Though budtenders are expected to have extensive knowledge of the goods, previous marijuana experience is not necessarily required. Many dispensaries will offer on-the-job training, and budtenders are well positioned to advance in the industry.

In some ways, managing a marijuana dispensary is a lot like managing any other retail store: manage the staff, track inventory, and cultivate a clean, professional atmosphere. But the highly regulated nature of the product makes it a bit more complicated. It's the manager's job to make sure all employees are compliant with state laws, that everyone entering the store is 21 or older or, if it's not a recreational store, that all customers have proper medical credentials. Slip up and your dispensary could be shut down by the state.

Dispensary managers often have experience running a high-end retail operation, like an apparel or jewelry shop. Legal marijuana is sold in a dizzying variety of forms, including gummies, vaping oils, candies, lotions, teas, pills, perfumes — even tampons. The director of extraction oversees the production of the oils and concentrates within the plants needed to manufacture such products. That means running — or possibly building — a laboratory, managing a staff and maintaining strict scientific protocols.

Not surprisingly, this is a job that requires some skills.

Ds, chemists and people coming out of pharmaceutical labs going for these jobs," said Humiston of Vangst. This entry-level, hands-on job represents the marijuana industry's intersection with the gig economy. Trimmers are called in at harvest time to remove buds from stems and trim leaves in preparation for sale. And while some large indoor grow operations employ trimmers year-round, most smaller businesses will hire trimmers either on a part-time or per-day basis. Though trimmers require no special education, they are usually required to be at least 21 years old and to obtain a special state permit.

A word of warning: Trimmers are the first marijuana workers to face possible displacement by technology. But many marijuana purists insist on a hand-trimmed product, which they believe carries greater potency. Score one for the humans. Sign up for free newsletters and get more CNBC delivered to your inbox. In Indonesian history, agricultural pursuits spanned for some millennia with some traces still observable in some parts of the archipelago. The hunter-gatherer society still exist in interior Kalimantan Indonesian Borneo and Papua Indonesian New Guinea such as the Kombai people , [18] while they were a sophisticated rice-cultivating community, the remnants of Hindu-Buddhist polity can still be observed in Bali through their subak irrigation system.

Agriculture in Indonesia started as a means to grow and provide food. Rice, coconut , sugar palm , taro , tubers , shallots and tropical fruits were among the earliest produce being cultivated in the archipelago. Evidence of wild rice cultivation on the island of Sulawesi dates back from BCE. Rice has been a staple food for Indonesians for a millennia [20] and holds a central place in Indonesian culture and cuisine. The importance of rice in Indonesian culture is demonstrated through the reverence of Dewi Sri , the rice goddess of ancient Java and Bali. The irrigation system was managed by priests and created around " water temples ".

While some panels of the bas-reliefs on temple walls, such as Borobudur and Prambanan , describe agricultural activities, Javanese stone inscriptions which can be traced back from the 8th century, describes the king placing a levy on rice. Local kingdoms in Indonesia were among the earliest polities to participate in global spice trade.

The ancient maritime empires of Srivijaya 7th to 11th century and Majapahit 13th to 15th century for example, were actively involved in spice trade with China, India and the Middle East. Ports of Sunda and Banten were important centers of pepper trade back in the 14th to 17th centuries.

Certain endemic Indonesian spices such as nutmeg which is indigenous to the Banda Islands and cloves were highly sought in the West, and prompted the European Age of Exploration. The Portuguese were the earliest Europeans who established their presence in the archipelago by the early 16th century. The Portuguese, through Spanish intermediaries, introduced the New World's products such as chili pepper , maize , papaya , peanuts , potato, tomato, rubber and tobacco into the archipelago's soil.

The surge of the global spice trade was what led European traders reach the Indonesian archipelago who were in search for direct sources of valuable spices, at the same time, cut through middlemen in Asia Arabs and Indian merchants and in Europe Italian merchants. By the early 17th century, Dutch East India Company VOC began to establish its influence within the archipelago, by building trading offices, warehouses and forts in Amboina and Batavia.

VOC further established sugar plantations in Java. This event officially marked the Dutch colonial period in the archipelago. The cultivation system was enforced in Java and other parts of Indonesia by the Dutch colonial government between and Indonesian historians refer to it as Tanam Paksa "Enforcement Planting". The Dutch introduced numbers of cash crops and commodities to create and establish an economic engine in its colony. Establishment of sugarcane, coffee, tea , tobacco, quinine, rubber and palm oil plantations was also expanded in the colony.

During the Japanese occupation, the agriculture sector was overseen by the Gunseikanbu Sangyobu. Rice yields and plantation commodities were controlled by the Japanese empire's military authority. The plantation business which was a major economic sector, was relatively shut down during the Pacific War and the ensuing Indonesian war of independence — All efforts in the agricultural sector was focused in meeting basic needs for food rice and clothing cotton. The Imperial Japanese authority attempted to increase rice and cotton production in the occupied Indies by mobilizing labor.

However, scarcity of these essential commodities prevailed and resulted to famine and clothing shortage. The Indonesian Republic declared its independence on 17 August The partnership was strengthened with the opening of a FAO country office in In the s until the s, the republic made every effort to develop a post-war agricultural sector and led to the sector's significant expansion. During the Suharto era , the government launched the transmigration program that relocated landless farmers from the overpopulated Java to the less populated Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua, thus expanded agricultural farms in the outer islands of the territory.

The most significant indicator of growth is the expansion of palm oil plantations, which became the new form of transmigration program. However, Indonesia still has vast tracts of idle lands which can potentially be developed into farmlands.

Agriculture in Indonesia

These cover 40 million hectares of degraded forest areas that have turned into grasslands after being abandoned by logging concessionaires. Agricultural commodities are known for its economic resilience and are among the first to recover from the impacts of global financial meltdown.

With a large number of its population still working in the agriculture segment, Indonesia has great potentials of attracting foreign investments. The agriculture sector plays a vital role in food production and food security and in supplying the needs of a huge Indonesian population. Rice is a staple food in the Indonesian diet, [20] as typical Indonesian meal consists of richly flavored side dishes, meat or poultry and vegetables, surrounding a pile of steamed rice. Indonesia is the 3rd largest rice producer in the world after China and India.

However, because of Indonesia's large population, the rice it produces is consumed internally. To ensure food security, the government fills the gap by importing from neighboring countries like Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia.

Labor Management in Agriculture: Cultivating Personnel Productivity -

Horticulture , which covers fruits and vegetables production, holds an important role in the local Indonesian economy and in the attainment of food security. Indonesia possesses a variety of horticultural products. Its native fruits include durian , mangosteen , rambutan , salak , banana , jackfruit , mango , kedondong , jambu air , buni , jamblang and kecapi.

The products prices are highly dependent on seasonal availability and proximity to production centers, due to transportation and cargo infrastructure restrictions. As a result, prices of horticulture products vary greatly throughout Indonesia. Prices might be cheaper in Bandung and Bukittinggi as they are closer to horticulture farms but are significantly more expensive in Pekanbaru and Balikpapan which are located far from production centers.

Recently, owing to a varied Indonesian topography, non-tropical horticultural products such as apple , strawberry , honeydew , grapes and dragon fruit are grown in the cooler mountainous region of Indonesia. The mountainous region around Malang in East Java is the production center for apple and dragon fruit, while those around Bandung in West Java are the production centers for strawberry, honeydew and mushroom. Despite its being home to the world's 4th largest population making it a huge market for horticultural products, the horticultural sector in Indonesia is deemed as under-performing which leads to the necessity of importing fruits and vegetables.

Currently, Indonesia imports much of its horticultural needs from Thailand durian, carrot and chili pepper , China garlic , orange and pear and from the United States soybean and apple. To protect local farmers, the Indonesian government applied protectionist policies on import settings for horticultural products, as well as restricting ports of entry. Spice is an essential element in Indonesian cuisine. In Indonesian , spice is called rempah , while the mixture of spices is called bumbu , they are chopped finely or ground into paste using traditional stone mortar and pestle , and spread over vegetables, meat, poultry, fish and seafood to add aroma and taste.

However, surprisingly nutmeg, mace and cloves are seldomly used in Indonesian cuisine. It is likely that lada hitam black pepper , kunyit turmeric , sereh lemongrass , salam koja curry leaf , bawang merah shallot , kayu manis cinnamon , kemiri candlenut , ketumbar coriander , and asam jawa tamarind were introduced from India or mainland Southeast Asia, while jahe ginger , daun bawang scallions and bawang putih garlic were introduced from China. Those spices from mainland Asia were introduced early, in ancient times, thus they became integral ingredients in Indonesian cuisine.