Polymers in Solar Energy Utilization

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Sun said the field was developing fast and expects to produce a prototype product in three to five years. Other scientists in China have also used Tengs on solar cells to harvest some power from the wind , an approach Sun said could be added to his device. The top layer of the Teng is also grooved to help focus more light on the solar cell. Prof Keith Barnham, at Imperial College London, said the hybrid device gave an important advantage in making it more compact and efficient. Energy utilization. Energy harvesting. Conjugated polymers.

Polymer films.

CORDIS | European Commission

Excited states. Energy transfer. Molecular structure. Semiconductor quantum dots. Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 7 , The objective of this research is to synthesize novel sensitizers including porphyrins for low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells of which the device performance exceeds that of expensive ruthenium-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

Emerging Solar Energy Materials

In this project, we will develop a hydrogen production system based on photocatalysts for water splitting, which has high efficiency and a large scalability. Novel multi-junction structured solar cells using silicon and germanium are developed, with using sputtering hetero-epitaxy of germanium on silicon. By making use of germanium layer, photons with wavelength between and nm which is used to be difficult for silicon film can be absorbed in excess.

Further breakthrough of energy conversion efficiency in silicon based solar cells is expected. Nanoscaled metals and semiconductors have special properties relative to the bulk. Although highly efficient solar cells utilizing nanostructures are being proposed, conventional nanotechnology cannot afford to manufacture these devices on a large scale. This project focuses on the development of next generation solar cells with nanostructure based on the self-assembly techniques of colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles which are synthesized by the wet process.

For development of CO 2 -utilization technologies using solar light as an energy source, we will develop novel types of Z-scheme photocatalysts for CO 2 reduction constructed with both metal-complex and semiconductor photocatalysts. Metal-complex photocatalysts constructed with abundant metals will be also investigated. We have confirmed evident photoconduction corresponding to the large optical absorption.

In this work, we are committed to apply this photoconduction to photovoltaics. From now on, the engineers should establish tolerant and stable computer architecture for using next generation ultra low-power devices that handle information employing tiny transition of energy level. We explore several cutting edge techniques to enhance dependability of next generation computers that will be developed with some ultra low-power device with the aim of collaboration of researchers in the field of devices and computer architectures.

Selective preparation of novel high performance anodic material for metal secondary battery using TCNF with unique nano-gate structure is studied, which contains target metal only inside of TCNF and does not let metal particle but only metal ion allow to enter and leave inside space of TCNF through nano-gate structure. Such metal charged TCNF with unique nano-gate structure can suitably allow the very effective anodic material for metal secondary battery with high capacity, high rate and high reliance. For the 1st stage, the optimization of nano-gate structure of TCNF, the charge of target metal to only inside of TCNF-NG and the proper electrochemical charge-discharge characteristics of target metal ions through the nano-gate structure are focused to early realize the anodic materials for Li and Na metal secondary battery systems.

This study is development of physically giant storage materials which are different from alkaline type fuel cell based on usual electrochemical reactions. We investigate realization of the immediate future-electric and electronic devices with smallest-lightest metallic capacitors, by aids of controlling of tunnel structures and joining of ribbon specimens. Light emitted from the sun and waste heat produced from human activities are precious energy sources in our country which lacks any other energy resources. Photovoltaics and thermoelectrics are the technologies that convert these energies into electric power, but seem to run into an impasse technologically at present.

We try to unify the two technologies and create a new science on optically-active thermoelectric materials in which light energy and heat can be converted into electric power at a much higher efficiency than the state-of-the-art technologies. Using such materials we propose a new direction to developments of energy conversion materials. We are wasting huge thermal energy, which remains in hot water of baths, automobile exhaust, unused heat from power plants and incinerators, for instance.

This research aims to develop novel thermoelectric materials, which harness the remaining heat to generate electricity. The goal will be to realize rare-metals free and high-efficient materials using flat-band mechanism. Cellulose is a major component of plant cell wall and the most abundant biomass in nature.

However, production of energy and materials from cellulosic biomass involves many difficulties. We attempt here to establish the biomass utilization process using the enzymes from filamentous fungi for the production of chemical building blocks and electricity at the same time from cellulosic biomass, which contributes development of low-carbon society.

To find novel chemical structures for developing dyes suitable to a dye sensitized solar cell, we search a diverged array of natural products produced by plants and microorganisms. Low-cost novel dyes will be developed from selected chemical structures by means of combinatorial biochemistry, in which biological and chemical techniques are combined to produce diverged dyes.

Micro algae have capability to concentrate inorganic carbon into the cell and to produce various useful energy compounds such as triacylglycerol containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this study, such capabilities will be clarified at the gene level and used to enhance photosynthetic carbon fixation. We also develop technologies, which enable us to modify metabolic pathways to convert fixed carbon into valuable materials, for example, used for chemical industry. We will identify useful genes by analyzing genomic structure and gene expression patterns in green algae.

Establishment of a low-carbon society can be promoted by the spread of biofuel used for vehicle, such as automobile. This research develops a technology of improving the function of a living thing by large scale genome reorganization. Furthermore, we challenge development of a system which produces efficiently the drop-in fuel which does not need change of a vehicle and a fueling infrastructure. This study aims to develop a technology based on intelligent space management systems that help people to use energy save mode without consciously being aware of it.

Cheap and simple biorhythms sensors attached on the body and environments learn a single or multiple users' expectations and implement adaptive low-energy consumption at multi-modal equipment. This will promote human ability to adapt to environment, and will consequently improve our mind and body.

The purpose of this project is to develop a high efficiency secondary battery by using an electron storage phenomenon found in the semiconductor made mainly of Mg and Zn. A photo-induced-structural-change is necessary requirement for the electron storage in this system. By clarifying the further mechanism of electron storage, device structure and material processing are optimized. Si is one of the powerful candidates for next-generation anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

However, a large volume expansion of Si upon Li insertion can totally destroy the structure of the whole electrode, resulting in a quite poor cyclability. In this work, we overcome this problem by using Li22Si5 alloy as an anode material.

Green chemistry for organic solar cells

Our target is to develop an anode material with 5. We will develop base technology for bioproduction of chemicals to achieve significant reduction of CO 2 emission in chemical industry. For this purpose, we will develop technology for 1 bioproduction of hydrophobic chemicals using organic solvent tolerant bacteria as host strains, 2 novel biocatalysts that enable byproduct-free production and can be handled as easily as chemical catalysts.

We will also establish novel biocatalyst immobilization technology required for continuous process and downsizing of process. We aim at improving the efficiency for carbon dioxide fixation and energy acquiring system. We also aim at improving the productivity of biomass and useful materials through the introduction of new technique. For these purposes, we promote the following researches; 1 to improve the efficiency of carbon dioxide fixation enzymes, 2 to improve the efficiency of energy acquiring, 3 to develop a system to make useful materials from carbon dioxide, and 4 to develop a new cultivation technique.

We have achieved to create potato plants with 3. Past Projects FY White Biotechnology Basic chemicals prepared by bio and catalytic technology Takashi Arai Group leader, Daicel Corporation The waste glycerol is converted into erythritol by the biotechnology, and then erythritol is produced into butanediol and so on by the catalytic technology, independently. Development of high functional biosurfactant for mastering the bioplastic Hiroshi Habe Group leader, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology The biosurfactant is utilized as an additive for plastics towards innovative development for the material sophistication technology such as high-level dispersion of materials.

Development of graphene capacitor contributing to a low-carbon society Tang Jie Group Leader, National Institute for Materials Science The unique characteristics of graphene such as huge specific surface area and autonomic nanopore formation lead to a highly sophisiticated supercapacitor by the core technologies of three dimensional stacking technology for single layer grpahene sheets and ionic solution system penetrating through nanopores in graphene electrode. Nanobio design for solid-degrading enzymes:CO 2 bypass carbon cycling Mitsuo Umetsu Professor, Tohoku University Cellulose biomass is a water-insoluble matter that is hard to degrade.

Development of high efficiency silicon-based tandem solar cells using silicon- based nanomaterials Yasuyoshi Kurokawa Lecturer, Nagoya university We will develop high quality silicon quantum dots QDs solar cells for the application to the all silicon tandem solar cells. Electricity generation by combination of solar-pumped lasers and PV devices specially designed for monochromatic laser light. Development of cryogen circulation pump for cooling of high temperature superconducting power device Kazuhiro Kajikawa Associate Professor, Kyushu University Cooling systems required for high temperature superconducting HTS power devices are not in a realizable stage yet.

Development of Intercalation Pseudocapacitors Masashi Okubo Associate Professor, The University of Tokyo Development of high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices is highly desired because of strong demands for their wide spread use in a smart grid. Development of novel crop protection technology which can confer durable disease resistance to various crop species Yoshiteru Noutoshi Associate Professor, Okayama University Reduction of crop yield losses by diseases can greatly contribute to increase biomass production.

Irreversible hydrolysis of esters and direct transformation of alkenes directing toward energy reduction of water separation Makoto Tokunaga Professor, Kyushu University In this project, we aim energy saving by improvement of current process of petroleum chemistry. Printable organic solar cell based on liquid crystal science Masanori Ozaki Professor, Osaka university On the basis of strategy cultivated in the field of liquid crystal science and technology, we aim to develop a perfect bulk-heterojunction with three-dimensional nano-scaled network for high-efficient organic thin film solar cell which can be fabricated using printing methods at atmospheric pressure.

Advanced solar energy utilization systems based on high-temperature photonics Hiroo Yugami Professor, Tohoku University In this project, we will develop the thermal radiation spectral control technology based on high-temperature photonics.

Solar power

Superconductor Electronic System Combined with Optics and Spintronics Akira Fujimaki Professor, Nagoya University We aim to build a computing system with lowered energy consumption for establishing low-carbon society. Yamamoto Professor, Gifu University In order to cope with social demands of biomass production, drastic plant breeding is necessary for various purposes. Integration of nanostructures in crystalline silicon solar cells for advanced management of photons and carriers Noritaka Usami Professor, Nagoya University We propose to integrate nanostructures to consist of nanophotonic crystals and quantum dots in crystalline Si solar cells for advanced management of photons and carriers.

Development of high-efficient and high-intensity lighting using hollow nanoparticles Masayoshi Fuji Professor, Nagoya Institute of Technology Hollow nanoparticles can be expected to exhibit various properties due to their unique structures. Artificial Photosynthesis System Shunichi Fukuzumi Professor, Meijo University In nature, the photosynthetic system utilizes solar energy for producing carbohydrates to store the energy.

Spinodal Nanotechnology for Super-High Efficiency Energy Conversion Hiroshi Katayama-Yoshida Professor, Osaka University For the realization of ultra-low cost and super-high-efficiency energy conversion, we perform the multi-scale simulation and computational materials design of the self-organized nano-superstructures, self-regeneration method, new-materials fabrication method, environment friendly materials, and new functionality, based on the spinodal nano-decomposition.

Development of environment-friendly solar cell made by clathrate compound of group IV elements Tetsuji Kume Associate Professor, Gifu University For decrease of emissions of greenhouse gases, it is required for solar cell to use environment-friendly materials as well as to achieve the high efficiency and durability. Realization of all crystalline ideal structure of organic photovoltaics and efficiency maximization by utilizing co-evaporant induced crystallization method Toshihiko Kaji Associate Professor, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Organic semiconductors, such as an ingredient of paint, have potentially high carrier mobility and ideal semiconductor characteristics when purified and crystallized.

Development of the high-efficiency photovoltaic rectenna Shinji Nozaki Professor, The University of Electro-Communications A combination of a rectifier and an antenna to receive RF power is referred to as an rectenna, in which the diode converts the high-frequency AC signal received by an antenna to a DC signal. Novel metal-air battery using oxide ion conducting nano thickness film Tatsumi Ishihara Professor, Kyushu University High oxide ion conducting materials will be developed based on nanoionics effects and innovative metal-air battery will be developed by using the developed high oxide ion conductor for electrolyte.

Bottom-Up Fabrication of High Performance Compact Devices Using Single-Crystal Nanocubes Kazumi Kato Research Group Leader, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology In order to develop bottom-up fabrication technology for high performance compact devices, basic issues such as synthesis, assembly, interface and characteristics of single-crystal nanocubes of dielectrics are investigated.

Application of complex hydride-based fast ionic conductors to all-solid-state rechargeable devices Atsushi Unemoto Lecturer, Tohoku University The complex hydrides, which are different members of the oxides and the sulfides, are recently recognized as the third party of the rechargeable battery electrolytes.

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Development of Innovative Regulatory Techniques of Biofilms for production of clean energy Nobuhiko Nomura Professor, University of Tsukuba The primary goal of this project is the development of new regulatory techniques of microbial biofilms for the production of clean energy. Nishizawa Professor, Ishikawa Prefectural University Increasing biomass production in the problem soils where plant productivity is severely reduced contributes to the reduction of carbon dioxide.

How do solar panels work? - Richard Komp

An innovative Bacillus subtilis cell factory for industrial chemical production with high efficiency and flexibility Naotake Ogasawara President, Nara Institute of Science and Technology We aim to create a bioprocess-based cell factory for industrial chemical production, which currently depends on energy-consuming and CO 2 -emitting chemical processes. Development of Exergy Recuperative Reaction and Separation System Atsushi Tsutsumi Professor, The University of Tokyo Recently, self-heat recuperation technology based on the exergy recuperative heat utilization principle has been developed, which can recirculate all process heat, leading to drastic process energy saving.

Creation of Catalytic Biomass-refinery without Glycation or Fermentation Masakazu Iwamoto Professor, Chuo University The present and next-generation biomass-refineries are working with old-style processes of separation of components, glycation, and fermentation. Development of waste-heat recovery system using natural heat engines Tetsushi Biwa Professor, Tohoku university We will develop a new waste-heat recovery system that has no moving parts.

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Development of fuel cell and water electrolysis cell using nano-laminating technique for electrocatalyst fabrication Tsuyohiko Fujigaya Associate Professor, Kyushu University The target of this project is the development of fuel cell and water electrolysis cell using nano-laminating technique for the electrocatalyst fabrication.

Design principle for high-power shape memory alloy operated by waste heat Tomonari Inamura Associate Professor, Tokyo Institute of Technology Alloy composition and microstructures are controlled to maximize the output of new shape memory alloys that can operate above K. Development of highly efficient silicon thermoelectric materials using nanoscale structure control Shinsuke Yamanaka Professor, Osaka University To commercialize thermoelectric power generation technology, highly efficient thermoelectric conversion materials made of environmentally friendly elements are essential. Highly efficient saccharification of biomass by designer biocatalysts Noriho Kamiya Professor, Kyushu University The aim of this study is to develop a novel technology for assembling biocatalysts that play different roles in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass.

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Development of the key technology for design of novel lignocelluloses in plants by microbial functions Shinya Kajita Associate Professor, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology In order to achieve the low carbon society, we will generate novel lignocelluloses that include lignins with less inhibitory effects toward utilization of the plant biomasses. Development of a novel propanol fermentation process for bio-polymer production Michihiko Kataoka Professor, Osaka Prefecture University Propanol is expected as one of the feasible precursors of polypropylene, thus its production method from biomass is desired.

Basic Technologies For Green Inverter Using Large Diameter Diamond Substrates Hiroshi Kawarada Professor, Waseda University In this proposal, basic technologies for ultra low loss inverter is going to be developed utilizing the advantages of diamond properties in single crystalline substrates and polycrystalline substrates which can be provided in large diameter. High performance silicon solar cell by solution process Tatsuya Shimoda Professor, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology The aim of this research is to develop a solar cell with high cost performance by solution process using both liquid silicon materials and liquid metal oxide ones.

Construction of Hybrid-nanocarbon Solar Cells Masaru Hori Professor, Nagoya University Hybrid-nanocarbon solar cells, consisting of amorphous carbon, nanographene, nanodiamond and, their composites or stacks, are proposed as a novel solar cell in this project. Development of facile synthesis routes for single-crystalline transparent-conducting-oxides-coated glass substrates Akira Ohtomo Professor, Tokyo Institute of Technology As for the environmentally benign metal-oxides, practical use has been pursued in many technological areas related to clean energy.

New strategic search for high-Tc superconductors by thin-film synthesis forefront Michio Naito Professor, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology This project aims at the search for new high-Tc superconductors by renovating the strategy from past "carrier doping to Mott insulators" to new "strong Cooper pairing via covalent bond". Development of innovative superconducting electric power cable Teruo Matsushita Researcher, Kyushu Institute of Technology A superconducting DC power cable will be developed employing the longitudinal magnetic field effect that the critical current density of a superconductor increases dramatically in a parallel magnetic field.