Rehabilitating Blind and Visually Impaired People: A psychological approach

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Imagine that your article is completed and that you are a reader opening the journal.

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What can you say at the beginning of the article that will interest a reader? What can you say that will encourage someone to continue reading?

A psychological approach

A professional article should have a clear plan to help the reader understand how it will achieve its stated purpose. It is not like writing a mystery: The reader should not be kept in suspense. Instead, the structure of an article should allow the reader to move logically and comfortably through the material, remaining oriented to the author's intentions at every point. Most authors use section headings as landmarks for the reader.

For example, if you are writing about a teaching idea to submit as a Practice Report, your sections may be Introduction, Methods, and Conclusion. If you are submitting a longer research article, you will have more major sections. Because the journal is mainly read by professionals in direct service, it is also important to describe how your topic can be applied to professional practice. This can be included in the discussion or conclusion or, preferably, in a separate section called Implications for Practice.

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When you are ready to begin writing, it may be helpful to develop an outline to guide you in organizing your work. Be sure that you have planned what will be included in each section. Authors often use their first few sentences to capture the reader's interest. They may find a way of connecting with readers through a common professional experience, or they may identify a problem that encourages the reader to keep reading. Most authors then provide a summary of recent literature on a subject to establish the importance of the topic.

If it is a long article, a fuller review of the literature may be included in a later section. If it is a Practice Report or Research Report, a few paragraphs about important articles on the same topic may provide a rationale. The introduction should also state the main purpose of the article and should include a short description of how the purpose will be achieved.

This section usually comes at the end of the introduction. Here is an example of how two authors described the purpose and structure of their article:.

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The study presented here investigated the specific types of collaboration that may or may not take place between residential schools and LEAs during transitions. It explored the amount of engagement in collaborative activities with LEAs, how the collaborative process is defined, the benefits of collaboration that result, and the changes that residential schools would like to see to improve the collaborative transition process Zebehazy and Whitten, , p.

Use of a standard style for writing, citations, and references makes it easy for reviewers and readers to check the references you have used. The style guidelines of the American Psychological Association APA are particularly easy to use because only an author's last name and publication date are cited in text references, creating little interruption in the flow of the text.

Although editors will allow for minor stylistic errors in an article that has potential, significant mechanical and style problems can contribute to the rejection of an article for publication. Use words that are clear and understandable to all readers, including people who do not work in the field of visual impairment. If an unusual or technical word is used, briefly define it. Make sure that each word and sentence is necessary to the meaning of the article, and eliminate those that are redundant. In identifying inappropriate language, it can be helpful to read your article aloud. The conclusion should restate the main ideas of the article and should challenge the reader to think about what the future may hold in this area.

Just as the introduction captured the reader's attention, the conclusion should motivate the reader to find out more about the questions posed in the article. JVIB is read by professionals who are working with people who are blind or visually impaired. For this reason, the conclusion should provide a bridge from theory and research to practice.

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Whenever possible, the author should describe how information from the article could be applied in educational or rehabilitation settings. Although some authors create a title before beginning to write, they often change the title after completing the article. It is helpful to reread the article and consider what words will describe it clearly. Although it is tempting to use a title that gets the reader's attention, it is important that the title tell what the article is about.

When the article is used for future reference and research, readers should be able to decide whether it contains information on the topic they are exploring.

After completing an article, most authors set it aside for a few days and reread it. When reviewing the article, an author should take the role of the reader.


The support meetings are agreed and shared with the patient: they can take place concurrently with the rehabilitation process or occur on a weekly, fortnightly or monthly basis. The eye examination begins with a careful collection of general and ophthalmological data clinical history of an individual ,l, followed by an accurate assessment of visual acuity and reading skills, an objective physical examination evaluation of the anterior segment eye, ocular tonometry, fundus , a contrast sensitivity test, an evaluation of the chromatic sense and the testing of the filters, both indoors and outdoors.

The diagnostic procedures practiced are as follows: microperimetry, which aims to:. Any additional diagnostic examinations OCT, retinal fluorescein angiography, electrophysiological tests are planned on the basis of observed clinical reports. Once the diagnostic procedure has been completed and full information about the patient has been acquired, the team at the National Centre meets to create a personalized rehabilitation program.

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The meeting is attended by all the specialists of the Centre psychologist, ophthalmologists and orthoptists and, when necessary, also by external consultants such as the orientation and mobility instructor and a typhologist. The rehabilitation program is personalized and built on the individual needs of each visually impaired patient. Cutting edge instruments and equipment are used for rehabilitation and we are in direct contact with companies in this sector.

Meetings are periodically arranged with these firms, where technological updates are provided, along with presentations and demonstrations of new innovative devices the fruits of advanced research.